Anand Diagnostic Laboratory
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone(LH) are produced by the pituitary gland. FSH and LH act on the gonads and stimulate the production of sex hormones and so they are also known as gonadotrophins. In males these hormones act on the testes to stimulate the production of testosterone. In females they act on the ovaries to stimulate the
production of estrogen. These hormones are therefore indirectly responsible for sexual development and normal reproductive function.
Diagnostic Significance:-Serum FSH and serumLH
FSH and LH are used for evaluating patients with suspected hypogonadism and fertility problems. In this condition the FSH and LH levels tend to be elevated.
Low levels of FSH and LH are associated with hypo-functioning of the pituitary gland.
The reference range in females for both FSH and LH shows that there is natural variation through the menstrual cycle. These hormones are also useful in women with menstrual cycle disorders and in those with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD)
Prolactin is a hormone that is secreted by the pituitary in both males and females. However the major function of this hormone is the initiation and maintenance of lactation by the mammary glands in females. During lactation there is a physiological increase in the levels of prolactin in the blood
Diagnostic Significance: Serum Prolactin
High levels of prolactin are associated with impotence in males and amenorrhea in females. Prolactin levels are also increased in hypothyroidism and in renal failure.
A Sample report – Serum LH, Serum FSH and Serum Prolactin
Estrogen: Estradiol (E-2) is the major female sex hormone which are referred to as estrogens.. It is produced by the ovaries and during pregnancy by the placenta. It is also formed and secreted to a lesser extent in the adrenal cortex gland and the testes in males.
Progesterone: This is a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex and the ovaries. By about the 12th week of pregnancy the placenta also starts to produce this hormone.
Diagnostic Significance: Estimation of serum estradiol in combination of progesterone is useful in investigation of cases of infertility/hypofertility as well as for assisted reproduction protocols.
In males serum estrodiol levels are assayed in patients with feminisation and to diagnose the presence of tumors producing female hormones.
A Sample report Serum Estradiol and Testosterone
Testosterone is the major male sex hormone which is produced in the testes and to a lesser extent in the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for the development of the male external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics. In females it is converted into estrogens. Serum levels of testosterone are much higher in males as compared to females.
About 98% of testosterone in the plasma is bound to a protein known as sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG). A small percent of testosterone is also bound to plasma albumin. The panel includes the estimation of serum testosterone, SHBG and albumin in order to calculate the free testosterone as well the bio-available testosterone. The free testosterone and the bio-available testosterone are the active forms of the hormone.
Diagnostic Significance: The panel of testosterone and its fractions are estimated in serum in males with suspected hypogonadism. In females it is used for the diagnosis of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal tumors and other conditions such as menstrual disturbances.
Progesterone –A sample report
Insulin: Is a hormone secreted by the endocrine part of the pancreas. It functions primarily to regulate the levels of blood glucose. Following a meal, glucose levels in the blood start to rise. This stimulates the secretion of insulin into the blood. Insulin acts on several tissues to help in utilizing the blood glucose as a consequence of which the blood glucose level falls. Lack of insulin leads to Diabetes Mellitus (DM), characterised by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia).
The disease DM is of two types. In type I DM, the pancreas does not produce adequate amounts of insulin. In type 2 DM insulin secretion may be normal but it is not able to act effectively in stimulating the utilization of glucose by the tissues.
The other end of the spectrum is hyper-secretion of insulin associated with low levels of blood glucose (hypoglycaemia). This could be due to the presence of insulinoma or tumours which produce excessive amounts of insulin and high circulating levels of insulin.
Diagnostic Significance of serum insulin: Generally used to diagnose the presence of insulin secreting tumours. Serum Insulin levels are estimated along with C-Peptide and pro-insulin (C Peptide which is remnant of pro-insulin) after a 12 hour fast. It is also estimated in patients with type I or type 2 DM.
A sample report for serum insulin