Causes of Hepatitis :
- Viral infections
- Toxins& drug induced
- Autoimmune disorders.
Viral hepatitis :
Viral hepatitis is asystemic infection affecting the liver predominantly. There are five different types of Hepatitis viruses, identified by different letters A,B,C,D and E. While all cause liver disease they vary in important ways. In particular, Hepatitis B and hepatitis C lead to chronic disease in hundreds & millions of people and are among the most common causes of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
Most people do not experience any symptoms during the acute infection phase. However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Jaundice is the hallmark of liver disease and perhaps the most reliable marker of severity.A small subset of persons with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure, which can lead to death.
In some people, hepatitis can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis (a scarring of the liver) or liver cancer.
Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available. The vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic disease and liver cancer due to hepatitis B.