Department of Microbiology,
Anand Diagnostic Laboratory
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread through the air from person to person. Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is one of India’s major public health problem. India remains to be a high burden Tuberculosis (TB) country contributing to 23%
of all TB cases in the World, In India, two deaths occur every three minutes from TB. Surprisingly in India, people are still under the impression that TB is a disease of poor people, but it is not so.
The TB bacteria spreads when a person with TB disease coughs, spits, sings, sneezes or speaks. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.
Active TB is basically the ongoing disease i.e.; patients are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and shows symptoms for TB (80-90% pulmonary (affecting lung) and 10-20% extrapulmonary (affects other parts of the body such as the kidney, brain, spine and bones)) while Latent TB infection(LTBI) is the one in which the person acquires and carries the bacilli from diseased contact but does not show symptoms of TB disease, but may still need treatment.
TB bacteria most commonly grow in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as:
Drug-resistant TB can occur when the drugs used to treat TB are misused or mismanaged.
Drug-resistant TB is more common in people who
Diagnosis of Tuberculosis:
Morbidity of illness, financial burden, access issues, social stigma, confidentiality issues and adverse reactions to drugs often makes TB care a complex issue and these factors often determine patient’s adherence to TB treatment.
The Directly Observed Short Course Strategy (DOTS) using a thrice-weekly regimen for six months has been the backbone of country’s TB programs for last two decades. The Direct Observation of Treatment (DOT) is an important component of the strategy and is an attempt to improve adherence by active monitoring and recording of the consumption of each drug dose by an ‘observer’ acceptable to the patient and the health system.
Prevention of Tuberculosis:
1.World Health Organization, Global tuberculosis control: WHO report
2.Anti-tuberculosis resistance in the world: WHO
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