Department of pathology.
Anand Diagnostic Laboratory
Colorectal cancer develops in the colon or the rectum, also known as the large intestine. The digestive system processes food for energy and rids the body of solid waste (fecal matter or stool). Water and mineral nutrients are absorbed from the food matter in the colon. Waste (feces) left from this process passes into the rectum, the final 6 inches of the large intestine, and is then expelled from the anus.
Colorectal cancer is a formidable health problem worldwide. It is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common in women. Almost 60% of cases are encountered in developed countries. The number of colorectal cancers-related deaths is estimated 8% of all cancer deaths and making colorectal cancers the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer. In India, the annual incidence rates for colon cancer and rectal cancer in men are about 4.4 and 3.9 in women per 100000. According to the 2013 report, the highest annual incidence rate of colorectal cancers in men was recorded in Thiruvananthapuram followed by Bangalore and Mumbai.
Risk factors for colorectal cancers can be broadly divided into genetic and environmental or lifestyle-related factors. Most colorectal cancers are sporadic, although genetic factors increase the risk considerably. Most common genetic causes are familial adenomatous polyposis and its variants.
Environmental causes – Older men are at a high risk compared to women, inflammatory bowel disease with prolonged disease activity, people on immunosuppression following organ transplantation, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, obesity, cigarette smoking, decreased dietary fibers and fruit intake and decreased physical activity.
Certain medical conditions such as cholecystectomy, uretero-colic anastomosis, the presence of coronary heart disease, history of radiation therapy for prostate cancer, HIV/AIDS infection, patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma are more prone to colorectal cancers.
See your doctor if you have any of these warning signs:
Investigative facilities that are helpful and that are available at Anand Diagnostic Laboratory
Increasing tumour marker level can be an indication for early imaging studies such as abdominal ultrasonography and colonoscopy followed by histopathological confirmation. Tumor marker testing would be a good screening tool in cases with positive family history
Advantages of early detection
Preventive measures to reduce your risk of colorectal cancer.
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